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12 • 2015

  • Experience of mobile and direct technologies using for oil and gas prospects assessment of deep layers of cross-section (S.P. Levashov, N.A. Yakymchuk, I.N. Korchagin, D.N. Bozhezha, V.V. Prylukov)

    The results of evaluation of the prospects of a number of oil-bearing areas and structures in the Dnieper-Donets (DDB), Caspian and Pripyat Basin are analyzed. They were obtained with the mobile technology of the frequency-resonance processing and interpretation of remote sensing (RS) using for the “direct” prospecting and exploration of ore and fossil fuels. We can say, in general, that the results of remote sensing data interpretation is a new (additional) and mainly independent information that can be useful and in demand at any stage for the oil and gas prospecting. An important characteristic feature of this information is operative time of it receiving. Applying the method the maximum value of the reservoir pressure assessing allows even more significantly narrow the areas of detailed exploration of priority character conducting and exploration wells locate.

    Keywords: Reservoir pressure, hydrocarbons, deposit, satellite data, direct searching, processing, interpretation.

  • Magnetism of environmental objects in oil and gas promising fields in Western Ukraine (A. Menshov, R. Kuderavets, I. Chobotok)

    Existence of local magnetic anomalies with a few nT amplitudes upon oil and gas deposits proportionate with structure contours was approved in practice by magnetic measurements in different hydrocarbon structures and can be one of the searching criteria for hydrocarbon traps. Hydrocarbon migration and microseepage effect change composition of magnetic minerals including nearsurface areas and soils. The results of magnetic studies on Vizhomlya and Sudova-Vyshnya gas fields in the Ukrainian part of Carpathian Foredeep are shown. Specific features of structure of the local magnetic field and the magnetic susceptibility of soil are analyzed. The local magnetic anomalies with amplitude of 4–7 nT and a width of about 3 km were detected upon the investigated geological structures. Magnetic susceptibility investigations of soils on the Sudova-Vyshnya gas field showed close correlation with landscape changes. Soils are not very magnetic. The interpretation of the local magnetic and soil magnetic susceptibility anomalies upon hydrocarbon fields is a complex problem and needs further researching, including the integration of other geophysical methods in solving problems of petroleum geology.

    Keywords: oil and gas, magnetic susceptibility, magnetometry, soil.

  • Complex geology-geophysical model of the lithosphere of Donbas and problems of oil-and-gas potential (V.D. Omelchenko, A.V. Kendzera, V.G. Kuchma)

    Accoding to the results of the seismic studies with DSS and CDP methods in recent years, and the reinterpretation of previously obtained data we were able to more fully explore the structural features of the Donbas. The seismic velocity models along regional profiles were built. The distribution of velocity parameters in the sediment and consolidated crust was investigated. Perspective in terms of the structural factor, areas of possible hydrocarbon concentration are allocated.

    Keywords: sedimentary thickness, the crust, the mantle, oil and gas potential.

  • Spatial prediction of gas-generating sequences in Dnieper-Donetsk basin based on evaluation of vitrinite reflectivity (Yu.M. Zelenko, A.M. Karpenko)

    Ukraine energy demand currently met largely by imports at world prices of oil, gas and even coal. Due to the high growth rate of demand and gas prices, more and more attention is paid to the search for alternative sources of gas and involvement in the search process areas that were previously considered unproductive or unpromising. Themes additional exploration of existing hydrocarbon deposits and prospecting of traditional and non-traditional hydrocarbon sources is a key issue in the field of petroleum geology and more. The issue is to identify the most promising strata of rocks with a high content of organic matter, their lateral and spatial distribution, research and the basic criteria of maturity to separate oil and gas-generating strata based on estimates of the distribution index – vitrinite reflectivity (R0).

    Keywords: Dnieper-Donetsk basin, kerogen, forecasting, vitrinite reflectivity.

  • Deep structure and metallogeny Kirovograd ore district (G.M. Drogitska)

    The present study demonstrates spatial links between surface structures of the polymetal Kirovograd ore district and the middle-scale heterogeneity of crust and crust-mantle boundary. The architecture of the Kirovograd ore district is dominated by the Novoukrainsk-Korsun’-Novomirgorod pluton. The localization of uranium, lithium, gold deposits in the Novoukrainsk-Kirovograd granitoid massif is determined by the existence of a deep-seated mantle trough, which is going across the pluton. Based on the accumulated data we regard the Kirovograd ore district as a Paleoproterozoic center of mantle-crustal magmatism and endogenous ore formation.

    Keywords: ore district, pluton, M-discontinuity, crust, mantle, method of the deep seismic saunding (DSS), method of converted waves of earthquake (MCWE).

  • Indicators local heterogeneity assessment of the gravity field in solution tectonic zoning tasks (for example, the northeastern part of the Dnieper-Donets depression) (O.V. Dziuba, M.N. Zhukov, M.O. Rachova)

    The paper analyses tectonic structures, their genesis and composition. There are identified changes in the gravitational field of the northeastern part of the Dnieper-Donets depression. The authors suggest methods of processing gravimetric data for solving tectonic zoning. There is simulated and automated system for calculating physical and statistical attributes (standard deviation, absolute deviation, coefficient of variation, anisotropy, Abbe criterion and the horizontal gradient). There is developed an algorithm for assessing indicators of local heterogeneity of the gravity field, with classical model of the Gaussian distribution being appropriate to describe the distribution of the gravitational field inhomogeneity parameters over different geological structures. There is proposed a technique to study changes in the gravitational field inhomogeneity parameters by applying universal model of normal distribution. The paper studies distribution patterns of heterogeneity parameters of the gravitational field of the research areas (Shebelinka, Starovirivska, Ryabuhinska). The authors conclude by calculating indicators of local heterogeneity assessment of the gravity field decision-making criteria to create geostructural classification system for solving tectonic zoning.

    Keywords: gravitational field, statistical analysis, assessment information content, the density of the normal distribution, statistical attributes database, tectonic zoning.

  • Remote Sensing of the Earth Using the Method of Structural-Tectonic Analysis (R.V. Shulga)

    Detection and localization of objects promising for oil and gas using an algorithm structure-tectonic analysis. Research in the state of Tennessee, containing deposits of oil and gas. Research conducted using the algorithm of structural-tectonic analysis on remote sensing data that assesses the depth contours irregularities, including oil and gas content. Developed based on this method of technology and software algorithms aimed at finding hydrocarbon deposits. On researched area identified and contoured zone confirmed oil wells. Also identified zones containing no confirmation and are priority targets for geological and geophysical studies. Using this method makes it possible to reduce the territory of the geological search, geological and geophysical studies to reduce time for detection and localization of prospective zones for hydrocarbons and reduce cost of operations. This method may carry out study of depth of the different layers of rock, power and composition of loose sedimentary rocks.

    Keywords: structural-tectonic analysis, oil, gas, hydrocarbons breed, satellite data, remote sensing data processing, microseisms, small circular structures.

  • Stable solutions of inverse problems of gravity-magnetometry on shilds (P.O. Minenko, R.V. Minenko, Yu.P. Mechnikov)

    The results of the solutions of inverse problems with different ratios of the area map of the field to the area of interpretation model. It was found that the equality of these areas have the highest stability of the solutions. The field is recovered almost completely with very small standard deviation and its very low balances at any point after the solution of the inverse problem. For any excess of this ratio, especially in the two or more times, the inverse result distorted, appear on large area anomalies of one sign that can not be explained distribution of the field. Despite certain difficulties, to get some quantitative and spatial validation of the interpretation of the magnetic field geological data after drilling wells in geological sections, the structure of the iron ore deposit crosses. Dedicated area of high magnetization ferruginous rocks, which according to the drilling layers correspond with the highest iron content of magnetite. In general, the structure and location of the magnetization oscillations in it reliably established, contour magnetization traced over large areas. Set the border zone of oxidized ferruginous rocks, which coincides almost exactly with the border, dedicated to geological data. Failure to observe the ratio of the areas of the field maps and interpretation model leads to instability of the solutions of the inverse problem with the violation of the actual distribution of the magnetization in the layers of maps and vertical sections of the magnetization of rocks.

    Keywords: gravimetry, magnetometry, inverse problem, iterative method, iterative correction.

  • The linear interpolation on triangulated region as a method of 2D parameters modelling in the case of a priori information absence (I.P. Dolinsky, O.P. Lobasov, V.M. Ogarkov)

    The paper is devoted to developing the method of iterative linear interpolation on triangulated region for building of 2D parameters models in the conditions of data insufficiency and irregularity without a priory information. The approbation results using synthetic and real geological data are shown. In the regions of rare data the method, reveal more adequate structural model in comparison with other interpolation methods. The synthetic model example shows that result doesn’t depend on the mean of triangulation. The model doesn’t gain the properties that are not absent in intial data and rule out the border effects. The modelling of parameters that naturally rule out thinning (layer pressure and temperature, mineralization, chemical components of rocks and bed fluids etc.) is the sphere of use the method in the first place.

    Keywords: oil&gas geology, geoinformational system, numerical regional models, space analysis, 2D interpolation.

  • The influence of fatal exception error on the finite element algorithm efficiency (N.I. Bakhova)

    The practical analysis of the distribution of finite element method errors for temperature distribution in two-dimensional heterogeneous geological environment carried out. The method of determining the required accuracy of calculations is developed. Various methods of calculations by which you can achieve the best final results at economical expenditures of computing work are offered.

    Keywords: geological environment, error, finite elements method, computing experiments.

  • Some methodological approaches to solving inverse problems of magnetometry (E.P. Lapina)

    For the qualitative interpretation on the basis of the decision of the three-dimensional inverse problem an important issue is the choice of the initial approximation model in the initial processing of observed magnetic data. Appropriately chosen initial model will allow a detailed qualitative analysis and then move on to quantitative interpretation.

    Keywords: inverse problem, an analytical approximation, the magnetic field, a class of three-dimensional material rods, geological object, the vector of intensity of magnetization, qualitative interpretation.

  • Assessment of the corrosion processes impacton the pipeline natural-technical systems by the electrical methods (R.N. Hloba, E.M. Ivanik, Ya.N. Hloba, S.A. Vyzhva)

    Physical, physics-chemical and chemical types of influence are defined as a result of the impact of geological environment on the pipeline system. Corrosion is significant physical and chemical process that affect on the functioning of the pipeline transporting systems. Successful protection of pipeline systems may be effected at timely detection of corrosion damage, determining of its size and choice of protective measures. Geophysical investigations are the most important among the various methods that used to identify areas of corrosion. Electrical geophysical investigations are most informative among the optimal methods to determine the corrosion activity of soils. Electrical methods, such as vertical electrical sounding, symmetrical electrical profiling, gradient potential method and self-potential method were used to identify possible areas of corrosion on the underground pipeline of filling station “Kiev-4”. The low apparent resistivity and high negative spontaneous potential values are indicated that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure in the future. Electrical geophysical investigations along buried pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its negative environmental and economic consequences.

    Keywords: corrosion, pipeline system, filling station, VES, SEP, the method of “remote electrode”, self-potential method, gradient potential method.

  • Model truncated distribution of content hydrochemical data (A. Klypa, M. Zhukov)

    The object of the study was modeling distributions of trace elements in natural waters based on the truncated normal and lognormal distribution. To accomplish this goal was necessary to develop a method for estimating the parameters of both models and implement it for hydrochemical data processing. The method makes possible to extrapolate the density distribution curve in the left side of the cutoff point based on evaluation of the available parameters observations on the right side. Extrapolation in the left side of the cutoff point has been done based on symmetric method, method of the least squares and method of Kolmogorov. As a result, the method for estimating the parameters of both models was developed and implemented for hydrochemical data. The use of these models to handle hydrochemical data helped to solve metrological problem associated with insufficient sensitivity of measuring device. Proved that the truncated distribution models gives accurate estimates of numerical characteristics of distributions as a result integral characteristics of the ecological state of water bodies are more accurate. The software module provides a stable evaluation of function and density of distributions without distortion, which is usually practiced in similar situations. The method can be used to solve such problems in the study of other geological objects. The software module allows make all the necessary calculations in automatic mode.

    Keywords: hydrochemical data, model truncated distribution, probability and statistical distribution, integral characteristics, trace elements, natural waters.

  • Modern peatlands formation modeling (N.V. Vergelska)

    Processes of modern peat deposition within the Ukrainian Shield and Dnieper-Donets basin as constituents of recent continental sedimentation as deeply inherited development of tectonic settings favorable for coal formation during the whole Phanerozoic history. The degree of organic matter transformation was estimated by macro- and microscopic petrographic studies and spectral analysis of turf samples. A possible impact of a hydrogen-hydrocarbon-bearing fluid on recent formation of peatlands is estimated upon results of residual gas content in the turf samples. It was revealed that during deposition and maturation of organic matter within the studied areas of peat-bog sedimentogenesis the processes of oxidation, humification, beginning of gelification and sorption of gases in the system involving organic matter (vegetation remains) – groundwater table – H-HC-bearing deep fluid are actively developed. A similarity of processes governing organic matter transformations in a turf-bearing layer in different peat-bog complexes and various structures of the same landscape zone is evidenced. Detail study of organic matter transformation in modern geological structures will facilitate recognition of new contributing elements and geological and geochemical peculiarities of coal and coal-hydrocarbon systems development. Geochemical studies of interaction within the deep fluid – organic matter system will expand the set of criteria to predict coal-hydrocarbon complex accumulations in the sedimentary column.

    Keywords: peatland, Ukrainian Shield, Dnieper-Donets basin, organic matter, deep fluid.

  • Atom physics: new look (M.A. Yakymchuk)

    The results of the experiment of electric field intensity measuring, created by the living and non- living objects. It is pointing out that the current model of the atom substance does not meet the requirements, as could not explain the presence of electric charge of the physical object.

    Keywords:  model of the atom, intensity of electric field, a mineral, the human body.

  • Information modeling and kriging method in problems of electrometry wells (N.I. Bakhova, O.V. Kolosova)

    The main problems of spatial modeling are considered. The number of specific tasks, whose solution is impossible without statistics of spatially distributed information, are given. The several classes of information models for the preparation purpose of representative correct statistical description of data are proposed.

    Keywords: information modeling, resource model, the method of kriging, electrometry wells.